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Inhibition of proliferation and migration of melanoma cells by ketoconazole and Ganoderma immunomodulatory proteins 2021-11-15


Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, has been used to inhibit hormone synthesis in types of prostate and breast cancer. Immunomodulatory proteins of Ganoderma microsporum (GMI) inhibit the tumor necrosis factor-α- and epidermal growth factor-induced metastatic ability of lung cancer cells. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic skin cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited understanding regarding the effects of ketoconazole and GMI on melanoma. The current study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GMI combined with ketoconazole on melanoma survival and metastasis. The effects of GMI combined with ketoconazole on the viability, migration and protein expression of melanoma cells were determined by MTT assay, Boyden chamber assay and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The present results indicate that ketoconazole enhances the GMI-induced decrease in proliferation and migration of A375.S2 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketoconazole was identified to reduce the level of GMI-induced phosphorylated-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)-α and autophagy; however, ketoconazole did not affect p-AMPK-β levels in A375.S2 cells. In addition, ketoconazole and dorsomorphin dihydrochloride, an AMPK inhibitor, were revealed to reduce MCP-1 secretion in A375.S2 cells. In summary, the present study revealed that ketoconazole enhances GMI-inhibited proliferation and migration of A375.S2 melanoma cancer cells, and inhibits the secretion of MCP-1.



參考資料:  台灣:靈芝GMI與抗黴菌藥酮康唑併用,抑制黑色素瘤細胞增生與遷移


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